Profile of Telangana
Telengana is a newly constituted state in Southern region of India. A major part of Telangana was part of princely state of Hyderabad (Medak and Warangal Divisions), when it was ruled by Nizams under British rule till 1947 and later until 1948. In 1956, Andhra Pradesh was merged with Telangana region after dissolution of Hyderabad state and Andhra Pradesh was formed. However, Telangana became the 29th state of India on June 2, 2014.
The capital of Telangana state is Hyderabad
and it comprises of 10 districts. Hyderabad will serve as the joint capital of Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana for the next 10 years.
Bordering states include Odisha
to the north, Maharashtra
to the west and Andhra Pradesh towards the south and east. Major cities of Telangana are Hyderabad, Warangal
, Nizamabad and Karimnagar.
History of Telangana
The history of Telangana is rife with political movements which led to merger of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana region and much later the formation of a separate state of Telangana.
After India Became independent in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad who was a Muslim King desired Hyderabad State to remain independent under special provisions given to princely states. On September 17, 1948, in an operation led by Indian Army - that is, Operation Polo, the Government of India assimilated Hyderabad state. Hyderabad.
In 1952, there was a 'Non-Mulki Agitation' (mulki means locals) agitating against the fact that most jobs were taken by people from Coastal Andhra. They agitated shouting slogans like 'Idli Sambar go back' and 'Non-Mulki go back' .
In 1953, States Reorganization commission was formed for creation of states on linguistic lines. It was
recommended to disintegrate Hyderabad state and merge Marathi speaking region with Bombay state and Kannada speaking region with Mysore state.Later, in 1956, an agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and leaders in Andhra Pradesh for merging both Telangana and Andhra Pradesh and promises for safe guarding Telangana's interests - Gentleman's Agreement. Unified Andhra Pradesh was constituted on November 1, 1956.
Telangana agitation arose in 1969 a battle between students and the Government. This is not the same as Telangana Rebellion which was a peasant revolt and took place in princely state of Hyderabad sometime between 1946 and 1951 and led by Communist Party of India. (CPI).It was a revolt by farmers and labourers against the feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against king of Hyderabad State.
Many movements have taken place for revoking merger of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana. These include Telangana Movements in 1969, 1972 and 2009. Many strikes and protests mark the demand for separate statehood.
On July 30, 2013, a unanimous resolution was passed by the Congress Working Committee for recommendation of the formation of Telangana state. The Bill was placed and subsequently passed in the Parliament on February 2014 for the formation of Telangana state. After assent from the President the Bill was published in the gazatte on March 1, 2014.
Telangana state was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (from Telangana Rashtra Samiti party) was elected as the first Chief Minister of Telangana state. (Click on the image for an enlarged view on Facts about Telangana)
Also Read: History of Hyderabad | History of Warangal
Did you know?
Though India got freedom on 15th August, 1947, the people of Telangana tasted real freedom from the rule of Nizam on 17th
Geography of Telangana State
Telangana is situated on the Deccan Plateau and is drained by two major rivers Godavari and Krishna, though most of the land is arid.Other minor rivers which drain Telangana include Manair, Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Munneru, Moosi, Penganga, Praanahita, Peddavagu and Taliperu.
Northern Telangana receives around 900 to 1500 mm while Southern Telangana receives somewhere between 700 to 900 mm rainfall. 45% of the forest area of Andhra Pradesh is located in five districts of Telangana.The climate of Telangana state id hot and dry. March to MAy are hot months while June to September are monsoon months. November to february are winter months.
There is a considerable forest area around Hyderabad city. Nehru Zoological park, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary, Kotla Vijayabhaskara Reddy Botanical Gardens, Shamirpet Lake, Hussain Sagar Lake, Fox Sagar Lake, Mir Alam Tank and Patancheru Lake. Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education, the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), the Telangana Forest Department, Animal Welfare Board of India are institutions engaged in preservation and protection of environment and wildlife.
Adilabad is the second largest district in the Telangana state. Ranga Reddy District occupies an area which can be compared to Papua New Guinea's New Ireland! Osman Sagar is a fresh water reservoir on river Musi and is also a source of drinking water for Hyderabad.
Did you Know?
Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people.There are 65 sacred groves Telangana.
Khammam receives more rainfall than other districts in Telangana. However, Khammam is affected by the floods of Munneru, the tributary of Krishna River.
Krishna, Musi River, Aleru, Peddavagu, Dindi Halia River and Paleru rivers flow through Nalgonda district.Minerals in the district include Limestone, black and color Granites.
Godavari River enters Telangana state from Nizamabad district at Kandhakurthi.Also Read: Geography of Hyderabad
| Natural Resources of Hyderabad
| Geography of Warangal
| Geography of Adilabad
There are three National Parks in Telangana
- Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park in Hyderabad district
- Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park in Ranga Reddy district.
- Mrugavani National Park in Ranga Reddy district.
Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana include
- Warangal district: Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Adilabad district: Kawal Wildlife Sanctuary and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Khammam district: Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Medak district: Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Nalgonda and Mahbubnagar districts: Nagarjunsagar-Srisailam Tiger Reserve.
- Medak and Nizamabad districts: Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Karimnagar district: Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary.
- Adilabad and Karimnagar districts: Siwaram Wildlife Sanctuary
Minerals in Telangana
Today, many private and multinational companies are setting up industries in Telangana for tapping the natural resources available in a sustainable way while also contributing to its economic growth. What is needed is development of storage systems, infrastructural facilities as well as systematic exploration of these metallic, non-metallic and radioactive mineral resources and other mining activities.
Metallic minerals such as Chromite (found as float ore) is available in Khammam district. Mailaram area in this district is known for Copper mineralization. Alluvial gold is found in the region near confluence of Kinnerasani river with the Godavari in Khammam district and also near Mangampet in Warangal district.
Manganese ore is found in Adilabad district in regions around Gowlighat, Goatkur, Jamdapur and Chanda. It is also found in Ratampet and Kandali in the Nizamabad district.
Non-metallic minerals found in districts of Telangana include asbestos, amethyst, quartz and barytes. Amethyst occurs at Ramanapalli near Siddipet (Medak district) and Abdul Nagaram, Mekalgattu and Peddapadu in Warangal district.
Building stones and different varieties of rocks such as granite, dolerite, amphibolite, sandstone and marble are utilized in buildings and are found in Warangal, Khammam, Karimnagar, Rangareddy districts. This is also the reason why so many polishing units are operational in these districts. Khammam district is especially known for the presence of white marble. A number of such quarries are also found in and around Hyderabad city which supply with road metal.
5 Interesting Facts of Telangana that you should know
- The demand for Telangana is as old as the state of Andhra
- The last time new states were created was in 2000 which were Jharkhand, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh.
- P V Narasimha Rao, India's ninth prime minister, was a native of Telangana.
- Osmania University was the focal point of the Telangana movement
- Telangana is India’s 12th largest by population with 35.29 million people, almost that of Canada.
Adilabad district (Panchagoan, Ralapet and Katterala villages) has deposits of white clay which is used for making low grade pottery. Clay deposits near Hyderabad city are used for making porcelain-ware. Such deposits are found in areas near Golconda fort and south of the Kutubshahi tombs. White residual clay is found in Shekapur village and Gambirpet in Medak dstrict. Nalgonda district has occurrence of clay in regions around Chintriyal while Nizamabad district has this natural resource in Konasamudram.
Everyone knows about Coal bearing Gondwana rocks which occupy parts of the Adilabad, Karimnagar, Khammam, Nizambad and Warangal districts. Very good quality flux grade dolomite is found in areas around Raghunathapalem, Madharam, Vemulanarava in Khammam district.
Radioactive minerals in Telangana
Deposits of vein quartz occur near Kukatpalli, Ghamsabad, Timmapur near Hyderabad city. Glass-grade vein quartz occurs in Tadepalle in the Khammam district, region around Shadnagar railway station in Mahabubnagar district and at Andole and Palampet in Medak district. Glass-grade quartz quarries can also be found in Chimarajupenta in Nizamabad district.
Telangana is, no doubt, rich in mineral resources. With proper survey, detailed information about area of presence of various mineral resources, sustainable exploration, the state can develop into one of the many economically well developed states in India. Uranium mineral can be utilized for sourcing electric power in the state. Economic and environmental laws must be implemented in a stringent manner. Mineral based industries must be attracted in the state which may include industries like fertilizers, glass, abrasives and refractory etc.
Dams and Reservoirs in Telangana
Dams provide drinking water, hydroelectric and Irrigation facilities. Dams and reservoirs located in Telangana are as follows -
Nizam Sagar Dam (Built in 1923):
Nagarjuna Sagar Dam (Built in 1967): Nagarjuna Sagar Dam is a masonry dam on the Krishna River at Nagarjuna Sagar in the border of Nalgonda district of Telangana State and Guntur District of Andhra Pradesh State. Nagarjuna Sagar dam is one of the earliest ones of India and supplies water for irrigation purposes and hydro power generation to the state.
Nizam Sagar is a reservoir constructed across the Manjira River (tributary of the Godavari River) between Achampet and Banjapalle villages of the Nizamabad district in Telangana.
Ramagundam Dam is an irrigation project on the Godavari River in Karimnagar District in Telangana.
Singur Dam (Built in 1989):
Singur Dam or Singoor is located near Sangareddy town of Medak district in Telangana.
Sriram Sagar (Built in 1977):
Sriram Sagar Reservoir on the Godavari River between Adilabad and Nizamabad districts
Lower Manair Dam (Built in 1985):
Drinking water for Karimangar, Warangal and Irrigation). Lower Manair Reservoir on the canal of Sriram Sagar Project (SRSP) in Karimnagar district.
Jurala Project (Built in 1995):
Jurala Reservoir on the Krishna River in Mahbubnagar district.
Other dams in Telangana include Dindi Reservoir, Dummagudem, Ellammpalli, Himayath Sagar (reservoir in Hyderabad), Icchampally Project (on river Godavari) and an interstate project of Telangana, Maharashtra, Chattisgarh - Koil Sagar is a Dam in Mahbubnagar district on Godavari river.
Economy of Telangana
Agriculture is the main source of economy in Telangana. The rivers Godavari and Krishna aid in irrigation. Local crops include rice, cotton, mango and tobacco. Sunflower and peanuts are also grown for producing oil. Multi-state irrigation projects include Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam which is the world's highest masonry dam. Hyderabad is the main source of revenue as there is lot of economic activity here.
Hyderabad is known for IT Parks and IT-enabled services (ITeS). There are Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in Telangana. Manufacturing units are based in Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Medak and Nalgonda districts. Mining, food processing, dairy and farming, poultry also aid in economy of Telangana state.
Hyderabad is the torch-bearer for all other districts in Telangana with an international airport in place, educational institutions, skilled professionals, Metro-rail project, suitable weather, IT Parks and infrastructural growth.
Nirmal wooden toys and Dhokra casting crafts of Adilabad are famous all over the country. Hyderabad emerged as a pharmaceutical and biotechnology hub and is known as "Genome Valley of India". 'Fab City' and the 'Nano Technology park' signify infrastructural growth in the field of Bio-technology in Hyderabad.Khammam district
is known for growing horticultural crops such as mango, cocoa, banana, coconut, oil palm, cashew, pepper etc.
Economy of Karimnagar
depends more on agriculture and related industries such as rice mills, saw, oil, animal husbandry, seed and other processing mills. There are industries which manufacture tiles, stone dressing and crushing, paper, cement concrete pipes etc. Silver filigree work is famous too. Jammikunta is an important industrial city in Karimnagar district.
Adilabad district, Khammam district, Medak district, Warangal district, Ranga Reddy district and Nizamabad district are receiving funds from Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF)
Since lime stone is readily available in Nalgonda district and also in the neighbouring Guntur district, Nalgonda is a cement manufacturing centre in Telangana. There are large number of Cement industries in Nalgonda. Miryalaguda in Nalgonda district is famous for rice mills. There are many banks, few small scale industries and cement and fertilizer industries in Ranga Reddy district.Society for Andhra Pradesh Network (SAPNET)
is presently running 4
television channels known as MANA TV and one data channel. These
channels provide distance learning for school education, telemedicine,
e-governance and rural development and agriculture.
Hyderabad is the major source of economy for Telangana state. all other districts are steering forth in the direction of infrastructural and industrial development.Also Read: Economy of Hyderabad
| Industries in Hyderabad
| Hyderabad as IT Hub
| Economy of Waarngal
| Economy of Adilabad
Culture of Telangana
Let us delve deeper and know more about the cultural heritage, traditions and society in Telangana. Telangana has inherited its culture from the Kakatiya dynasty's rule (11th to 14th centuries) and the Qutub Shahis and Nizams who were rulers of Hyderabad state.
Various ruling dynasties have delivered different facets in the culture of this newly formed state - the temple art inspired dance form Perini Sivatandavam, story-telling and problem solving discussions through Oggu Kathalu
, ghazals and mushairas
... Well, Telangana has taken the best from everywhere to have its very own rich culture and traditions!
You can see a mix of Telugu traditions and Persian traditions from the Moghuls and Nizams in the culture of the state. With a Dravidian language known as Telinga
, cross cousin marriages, tattoos on their bodies and customary dhoti
worn by men and sari
worn by women with a ring on their second toe, if they are married, society in Telangana enjoys its cultural traditions and festivals with much aplomb.
Women love to decorate the front yard of their homes with designs on the ground ( Kolam
in Telangana and Muggulu
in A.P.) and on auspicious occasions with mango leaves tied to the porches. Also Read: Hyderabad Culture
| Hyderabadi Biryani
| Culture of Adilabad
| Culture of Warangal
Who does not know about Hyderabadi cuisine believed to be developed by Qutb Shahi dynasty and the Nizams of Hyderabad. The aroma of spices, rice, herbs, coconut, peanuts, tamarind, sesame seeds and 'dum' cooking can steal anyone's heart! Famous dishes include lukhmi, Hyderabadi biriyani, mirchi ka salan, Hyderabadi haleem, Hyderabadi Marag, Nahari, haleem, the mouthwatering kebabs, especially the dum kebab,
boti jhammi, sheek, shikampur, Bagara baingan, Shahi dahi veda, tomato qoot, kalmi and kormas.
Festivals of Telangana
Telengana celebrates all important occasions with much fanfare.
is celebrated to pay obeisance to Mother Goddess Mahakali. Rice with milk and sugar are offered to the goddess, kept in brass vessel or earthen pot and then decorated with neem branches, vermillion and turmeric. Processions are taken out on the beat of drums and dances.In Secunderabad, Golconda Mahankali inside the Golconda Fort is worshipped after which the procession proceeds to Mahankali temple and Balkampet Yellamma temple and other parts of the city. Bonalu is celebrated in July-August.
is celebrated in September–October for nine days during Durga Navratri. Goddess Maha
Gauri is worshipped in the form of Bathukamma. Bonalu and Bathukamma are state festivals
Diwali, Sadar festival or Dunnapothula panduga (celebrated on the second day after Diwali), Samakka Saralamma Festival, Guru Purnima, Ekadasi Mukkoti, Shashti Subrahmanya, Ugadi, Sri Rama Navami, Karthika Purnima, Vinayaka Chaviti, Hanumajjayanti, Ratha Saptami, Makara Sankranti, Dusserah, Chaviti Nagula, Krishnashtami and Raakhi Pournami are other festivals celebrated in Telangana.
Famous Poets from Telangana
Mallinatha Suri also known as 'Vyakhyana Chakravarthi', Bammera Potana (1450-1510), Somanna, Suravaram Prathap Reddy, Dasharadhi, Vattikota Alwaru Swami (who led the Library movement), Padmavibhushan award recipient Kaloji.
Five Things You Must Know about Telangana
- The demand for Telangana is as old as the state of Andhra
- The last time new states were created was in 2000: The states created were Jharkhand, Uttarakhand and Chhattisgarh.
- P V Narasimha Rao, India's ninth prime minister, was a native of Telangana.
- Osmania University was the epicenter of the Telangana movement
- Telangana itself is big enough be considered as the 33rd biggest country of the world.
Art and Craft of Telangana
From making toys, brassware, stone and metal craft, paintings (using natural colours), sarees to hand loom, craftsmen in Telangana are adept at their work. Traditional cloth designing and dying, Banjara needle crafts, Kondapalli Toys, Veena manufacturing, Bronze castings, Ikat Weaving, Dokra Metal Crafts and Lacquer ware are also prevalent here. Nirmal
paintings, sarees with bidri
(half saree) and
weaves of Venkatagiri
Dance and Music in Telangana
Classical dance form Kuchipudi
(warrior dance form) are famous here. Carnatic music
is liked by the entire population and children start learning when they are very young. Dance forms
such as Kolattam, Burrakatha, Dappu, Lambada, Veeranatyam,
Bhamakalpam, Dhimsa, Tappeta Gullu, Bonalu and Butta Bommalu are famous here.
include Deccan Festival and Visakha Festival. Tirupati Festival, Ugadi Festival, Pongal and Lumbini Festival are also much loved festivals here. Yella Venkatesara Rao is a renouned Mridangam player (instrumental music).